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VENOUS BLOOD

Veins:

These veins carry blood from the body’s cells to the heart. Veins, like arteries, have layers in their walls. Middles, on the other hand, are slender and hardly muscular, with little elastic fibers. In the veins, semilunar valves can be found. These valves prevent blood from flowing backward as it moves towards the heart. When surrounding muscles contract, the pressure exerted on veins tends to crush them, assisting blood flow back to the heart. Veins connect to produce larger veins, which eventually form cavae, which drain blood into the heart’s right atrium. Pulmonary veins transport receives blood from the heart to the left atrium.

History:

The first known writings on the circulatory system can be found in the Ebers Papyrus. Air entered the mouth, lungs, or heart, according to the Egyptians. Sushruta, an Ayurvedic doctor from ancient India, was well-versed in the circulation of vital fluids. Ibn al-Nafis, an Arab physician, was the first to correctly define the mechanisms of the circulatory system in 1242. Though his achievement was not generally understood at the time, Michael Management of the organization was the very first European to explain the operation of pulmonary circulation.

While refining Galen’s notion of the pulse, Avicenna offered the first correct explanation of pulsation. In the 1970s, Diana McSherry developed computer-based technology to create images of the circulatory system or heart without the need for surgery. According to his Nobel talk, Harvey is credited with creating cardiology with the publication of his book in 1628. The Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to André Frederick Cournand, Werner Forssmann, & Dickinson W. Richards in 1956.

What are the three veins in arm?

Routine venipuncture is usually performed on the antecubital portion of the arm. The three vessels used by phlebotomists to acquire venous blood specimens are located in this area.

  1. The cubital median
  2. The cranial
  3. Veins of basil.

Which of the veins in the arm are superficial?

The cephalic vein runs through the upper arm before splitting around the elbow and entering the forearm. In the biceps region, it is frequently visible through the skin. The basilic vein runs parallel to the cephalic vein and runs through the arm at the triceps muscles on the bottom. Create a more sophisticated web-like drainage system using your heart.

The following are among the veins in arm:

The dorsal venous network is a web of veins that runs the length of the side of the knee.

Superficial veins: These veins lie close to the skin’s surface, as their name implies. In most people, these veins are exclusively found in the extremities and can be seen in the palm of the neck and forearm.

Cephalic vein: The cephalic vein is a big vein that runs across the upper arm after branching around the elbow and entering the forearm. In the biceps region, it is frequently visible through the skin.

Basilic vein: The basilic vein runs parallel to the cephalic vein on the bottom of the arm, near the triceps muscle.

Damage to these main veins and arteries, particularly forearm trauma, can be lethal. The basilic or cephalic veins are two of the most important veins in the body. Although there are significant anatomic variations, superficial veins contribute to both the axillary vein. The axillary vein becomes the subclavian vein after passing through the outer edge of the first rib.

Veins’ structure:

Veins are tubes that bring blood from the heart and are found throughout the body and form venous blood. Veins are divided into superficial and deep veins, pulmonary and systemic veins, and large and tiny veins.

  • Superficial vein are those that are closest to the skin’s surface and do not have accompanying arteries.
  • Deep veins are veins that run further into the body and are connected to arteries.
  • Perforator veins are veins that connect the superficial and deep veins.
  • These are most commonly located in the left limbs & feet.
  • Communicating veins is veins that connect superficial and deep veins directly.
  • Lung veins are a group of veins in the lungs that transport oxygenated blood to the heart.
  • Systemic veins transport deoxygenated back to the liver and empty the body’s tissues.

To prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction, most veins have one-way valves, comparable to a Duckbill valve.

Why are veins blue in colour?

As veins are translucent, how a vein looks the outside of an organism is determined by the color of the bloodstream, which is often dark red due to low oxygen levels. It appears blue due to a shortage of oxygen content in the vein. The amount of oxygen delivered throughout the blood, as well as the size or depth of the veins, can all affect the color of a vein. After being drained of blood and withdrawn from an organism, a vein turns grey-white.

Because you’re looking at veins through folds of tissue and tissue, who absorb more red frequencies while enabling higher generated code to enter your vision, the illusion of “green” or “blue” veins arises. This is due to the fact that hemocyanin, the protein that transports oxygen in the blood, is blue. When the arteries transmit it in its oxidation from throughout the body, it turns bright red. When it rushes back to the heart via the veins, it’s still crimson, but darker now. so, therefore, why are veins blue in colour?

Function:

Venous blood travels from the heart to organs via veins. Veins are also called “capacitance channels” because they control the majority of vein blood flow (60 percent). The left ventricle flow controls blood through the arteries to a body’s muscles, while nutrients and gases are exchanged at capillaries, resulting in the systemic circulation.

After taking cell waste products in capillaries, blood is channeled through vessels that converge and form venules, which often unite to form the larger venous blood veins. Veins carry deoxygenated blood to the heart’s right atrium, where it is transported to the ventricle and pushed to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary veins return the blood back to the heart to the left atrium, empties into the ventricles, and completes the venous blood circulation cycle.

Blood returns to the heart thanks to the muscle pump and the thoracic pump movement of breathing during respiration. Sitting in a chair for a lengthy amount of time can result in low venous blood return due to capillary pooling (vascular) shock. Although fainting is a possibility, sensors in the aorta sinuses generally cause a baroreflex, wherein the angiotensin II and norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction or quicker heartbeats to recover venous blood flow.

Neurogenic & hypovolaemic shock can also cause fainting. In these circumstances, the smooth muscles surrounding the blood flow veins relax, allowing the veins to fill with the majority of the venous blood flowing through the body, limiting blood from reaching the brain & resulting in unconsciousness. Jet pilots wear pressure suits to help them maintain healthy blood pressure or venous return.

The arteries carry oxygenated blood around the body, while the veins restore deoxygenated blood to the heart. The respiratory system, which transports oxygen from the brain to the body cells and is also the smallest part blood circuit in the body, exemplifies this. In pulmonary circulation, the arteries deliver deoxygenated blood from the heart and to the lungs, while the veins return venous blood oxygen from the heart to the heart.

The only difference between veins and arteries is their flowing direction (arteries go out of the heart, veins return), not their oxygenation levels. Additionally, blood flow steps required to the center for oxygenation in the circulatory carry some oxygen, but much less than blood carried through systemic arteries & pulmonary veins.

Despite the fact that most veins carry blood to the heart, there is one exception. Portal veins transport blood between capillary beds. Capillary beds are a system of plasma arteries that link the venules to arterioles, allowing materials from the blood to be exchanged with the tissues & conversely through the membrane. The portal vein, for instance, transports venous blood from the capillary beds of the digestive tract to the capillary beds of the liver.

The blood is then drained into the gastrointestinal system and spleen, where hepatic veins absorb it and return it to the heart. Because the portal vein serves such an important function in mammals, injury to it could be dangerous. Infections and portal veins produce portal hypertension, which causes a reduced inflow of blood to the liver.

In anatomy, what does blood flow mean?

Blood that has gone through capillaries of tissues besides the lungs is found in veins, the right chambers ( atria, and the pulmonary arteries, and is typically dark red due to a decreased oxygen level. Venous blood is oxygenated blood that flows into the left side of the heart from the epithelial cells veins. The right ventricle then pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the use of the pulmonary artery, which has 2 plants, left and right, to the left side lungs, respectively. The lungs oxygenate the blood, which then flows to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins.

Venous blood is often cooler and has a lesser oxygen concentration and pH than arterial blood. It also contains lower glucose and other nutritional contents and greater urea or other waste product. Excluding arterial blood gas studies, most clinical lab tests are performed on venous blood. Venipuncture (also known as phlebotomy) or a finger prick are used to draw venous blood for lab tests.

The venae cavae are the largest arteries in the human body. These are two huge veins that come in from above and below to enter your right atrium of the heart. The vena cava transports blood from the head and arms to the heart’s right atrium, whereas the vena cava transports blood from the legs or abdomen to the heart’s left atrium. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal vein that extends along the spine to the right, nearly parallel to both the abdominal aorta. These two veins are fed by large veins, while smaller veins feed into them. The venous system is made up of all of these components.

While the main veins remain in a generally fixed temperature, the role of veins varies greatly from person to person. From the lungs to the heart, the pulmonary veins transport relatively oxygenated blood. The superior and inferior venae cavae, which carry blood from the top and bottom systemic circulations, respectively, transport moderately deoxygenated blood.

The pulmonary blood system is made up of a network of veins called venules that combine multiple capillary beds directly. The hepatic artery and the hypophyseal portal system are examples of such systems. Blood is transported from the limbs, hands, and feet through the peripheral veins.

Venous Blood Sampling: A Step-by-Step Guide:

A needle is placed into a vein to take a sample of blood to test in venous blood sampling. Venous blood is often drawn from peripheral veins, most commonly the antecubital veins.

What is the procedure for collecting venous blood?

Venipuncture Sampling (Venipuncture Sampling)

The most common method of collecting blood from older patients is venipuncture. The blood is collected from a superficial vein in the upper limb, usually, the median cubital vein, which is close to the skin and lacks numerous major nerves nearby.

What are the most common veins for collecting venous blood?

For phlebotomy, the middle cubital vein is frequently the vein of choice: It’s much more solid lies more superficially, and has less sensitive skin than the other veins. Right arm, antecubital veins Veins in the antecubital region of the left arm

What is the most common location for drawing venous blood?

A needle is placed into a vein to take a blood sample for testing in venous blood sampling. Venous blood is often drawn from peripheral veins, most commonly the antecubital veins.

Diseases[edit]:

Insufficiency of the veins[edit]

Chronic venous blood insufficiency is the main topic of this essay.

Venous insufficiency is the most prevalent venous blood system problem, and spider veins or varicose veins are the most common symptoms. Depending on the patient’s vein type and pattern, as well as the physician’s preferences, a variety of therapies are performed. Endovenous Thermal Ablation with radiofrequency or laser radiation, vein stripping, ambulatory phlebectomy, foam sclerotherapy, lasers, or compresses is all options for treatment.

Following a deep vein thrombosis, postphlebitic syndrome causes venous blood insufficiency.

Thrombosis of the deep veins[edit]

Deep vein thrombosis is the main topic of this essay.

A blood clot in a deep vein, which is known as deep vein thrombosis. It mainly affects the capillaries of the legs, but it can also affect the vein of the arms. Deep vein thrombosis is caused by immobility, aggressive malignancy, obesity, traumatic injury, and inherited abnormalities that make clots less likely. It might produce swelling, discomfort, and an overlying skin rash in the affected limb. A deep vein thrombosis can worsen, or a fragment of a clot can come off and settle in the lungs, causing pulmonary embolism.

Treatment for deep vein thrombosis is determined by the size of the clot, the person’s symptoms, and their health conditions. Anticoagulation is used to prevent clots or to lessen the size of existing clots.

Hypertension of the portal veins[edit]

The portal veins run through the abdomen and transport blood to the liver. Cirrhosis, or liver illness, is linked to portal hypertension, as are other disorders including an obstructive clot (Budd Chiari syndrome) or pressure from tumors or TB lesions. Collateral circulation occurs as the pressure in the portal veins rises, resulting in visible veins like oesophageal varices.

Is oxygen present in venous blood?

Venous blood is often cooler and has a lesser oxygen level and pH than arterial blood. It also contains lower glucose and other nutritional contents and greater urea and other waste material concentrations.

Contraindications:

  • There are no absolute contraindications.
  • Contraindications that are related
  • Infection or hematoma at a potential venipuncture site
  • Injured or grossly edematous extremity
  • Thrombotic or phlebitic vein
  • Intravenous catheter distal to a prospective venipuncture site.

In the cases mentioned above, venipuncture should be done at a different site. Coagulopathy is not really a contraindication, although, after venipuncture, the sites must be squeezed for a longer period of time.

Local infection

  • Arterial puncture
  • Hematoma or bleeding
  • Damage to the vein
  • Nerve damage
  • Vasovagal syncope is one of the more typical complications.

Take a blood sample:

After the tourniquet is placed, try to get to the vein quickly and obtain the blood test within 30 seconds. The tourniquet should not be worn for more than one minute.

  • Reapply the tourniquet close to the insertion place you choose. Patients should not make a fist or allow their arms to drop down during blood collecting since these actions can result in erroneous laboratory results 
  • Using your gloved finger, palpate the center of the target vein.
  • Use the thumb of your dominant hand to apply mild pressure to the vein distal to keep it from migrating. Larger veins in the forearm and antecubital fossa may not require traction.
  • Inform the patient that a needlestick is imminent.
  • With the bevel pointing up, insert the needle proximally (in the direction of venous blood flow) along the midline of the vein at a low depth (approximately 10 to 30 degrees) to the skin.
  • When the needle tip reaches the vein lumen, blood will flow in the needle hub (known as a blood flash or flashback). Stop moving the needle, lower it to better align it with the vein, then advance it another 1 to 4 mm into the vein to ensure it stays in place during blood collection.
  • Withdraw the needle slowly if no flash develops in the hub after 1 to 2 cm of insertion. If you withdraw the needle head back into the lumen after it has passed entirely through the vein, a light may appear. If a flash does not develop, pull the needle close to the skin’s surface, change directions, and try to advance the syringe into the vein again.
  • Blood is extravasating if fast local swelling occurs. Put an end to the procedure: Remove the tourniquet and needle, and use a gauze pad to apply pressure to the puncture site
  • Do not move the needle.
  • Begin withdrawing the blood test and release the tourniquet after blood starts to flow.
  • When utilizing vacuum tubes, make sure to properly insert each tube into the tube holder, taking care not to dislodge the needle from the vein. Fill several collecting tubes in the correct order. To mix the contents of a tube, gently invert it 6 to 8 times after removing it from the holder; do not shock the tubes.
  • To avoid injuring the blood cells and collapsing the vein, carefully pull back upon on plunger when using a syringe.
  • When the blood collection is finished, place a folded gauze square at the marginal costing with your non-dominant hand, withdraw the needle, and exert pressure to the site with gauze in one motion. If you haven’t already, remove the tourniquet.
  • Start to follow pressure to the location with the patient or an aide.
  • Transfer samples to sample bottles and bottles if you collected blood with a syringe;* either inserts the needle straight into the tops of the vacuum tubes or remove the needle and connect a vacuum tube attached to the syringe. Allow the vacuum to suck the blood into the tube rather than injecting blood into the tube. After adding blood to a tube, gently invert it six to eight times to mix the content; do not shake the tubes.
  • Cover the exposed needle with a safety cover. In a sharps container, place used blood-collection instruments (containing needles). If a sharps box is not easily accessible, do not cap non-safety needles before disposal.
  • Apply gauze & tape or even a bandage to the wound. When doing several blood tests, blood should be assigned to the sample bottles in the following order: cultures first, anticoagulant tubes second, and so on.
  • Before introducing the blood sample, make sure the rubber tops of blood-culture vials are adequately cleaned (eg, by scrubbing each top with separate 70 percent alcohol wipes for 30 seconds and allowing it to air-dry).

What do venous blood gas readings mean?

In the absence of an arterial line, venous blood gas collections can be utilized to evaluate carbon dioxide, pH, or bicarbonate. Because venous blood gas can not identify arterial oxygenation, pulse oximetry data is required to obtain a complete picture of breathing.

A venous blood gas (VBG) is a – anti-method of detecting systemic carbon dioxide and pH that does not require the collection of arterial blood. Venous Blood gas analyzer (BGA) is a laboratory and point-of-care test that is commonly used to check acid-base status as well as ventilation and oxygenation sufficiency in critically ill and acutely ill patients.

Arterial blood taken anaerobically by needle piercing of even an artery or by a sanctifying grace arterial catheter is the “gold standard” sample for BGA. BGA is the only blood test that requires arterial blood; all other blood tests use venous blood, which is taken by needle penetration of a peripheral vein (venepuncture) or, less typically, capillary blood obtained by a fine needle.

In intensive care units, most patients requiring frequent venous blood gas screening have a venous blood catheter implanted, which allows for quick and safe venous blood samples for laboratory testing, eliminating the need for recurrent venepuncture. If this type of venous blood test could also be utilized for BGA, it would be more logistically easy for clinical staff, as well as more pleasant and safe for the patient.

Is intravascular blood an acceptable option for blood plasma for blood testing?

This article answers that topic. The outcomes of clinical research that compared BGA results produced from arterial blood with Ball grid data attained from similarly sampled central venous blood will be the main emphasis of the article. Mathematical modifications that are required to encourage forecasting of blood gas levels from measured venous gas values will also be considered.

The article starts with a brief explanation of the physiological differences between arterial and venous blood.

 Is there a difference between venous blood gasses and intravascular gas?

Except for O2 and CO2, the results on a VBG and ABG are equal (arterial and venous results are NOT substantially different for practical applications).

From a meta-analysis and related publications published in 2014:

For pH estimations in adults, VBG study compared well with ABG analysis o Peripheral venous pH is only 0.02 to 0.04 lower than arterial pH o Peripheral venous Bicarbonate concentration is approximately 1–2 meq/L larger unlike arterial HCO3 o Even so, venous and arterial PCO2 are not similar o The 95 percent prediction interval for the bias for venous PCO2 is unreasonably wide, trying to extend from 0.02 to 0.

With significant variability, arterial PO2 is generally 36.9 mmHg higher than venous PO2 (95 percent confidence interval: 27.2 to 46.6 mmHg). It’s worth noting that the primary purpose of VBG and ABG research is to collect serial measurements in order to detect therapy responses. In contrast to requiring recurrent ABG tests to analyze with an initial ABG, an initial VBG enables repeat VBG analysis (reducing patient pain).

Given the foregoing, it is permissible to use a VBG rather than an ABG in the first case when confronted with an ailing patient if there is no real concern for the respiratory system. A typical example is DKA, in which the important variables are pH, lactate, and potassium, which may all be obtained via a VBG. An initial ABG is required if there is a worry about a lung component to an illness.

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